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August 2023


Gum Health 101: The Surprising Connections Between Your Gums and Overall Health

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Dental health is often centred around sparkling teeth and a bright smile. Yet many of us tend to overlook a crucial component: gum health. While we might be quick to brush off a bit of bleeding after a vigorous floss, there’s growing evidence from Australian health bodies that suggests the health of our gums can greatly influence other systemic diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes. Let’s dive deeper into this.

The Basics of Gum Health:

What is gum disease?

Gum disease, medically known as periodontal disease, is an inflammatory condition affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth. In Australia, it’s a prevalent issue. According to the Australian Dental Association (ADA), there are two main types:

  • Gingivitis:This is the milder form, characterised by red, swollen gums that bleed easily, especially during brushing or flossing.
  • Periodontitis:If gingivitis isn’t treated, it can advance to periodontitis. This involves the inner layer of the gum and bone pulling away from the teeth, forming pockets, collecting debris, and becoming infected.

Common symptoms and signs of gum disease

While regular dental check-ups can identify early signs of gum disease, being aware of the following symptoms can be a lifesaver:

  • Red or swollen gums.
  • Tender or bleeding gums.
  • Painful chewing.
  • Loose teeth or sensitive teeth.
  • Persistent bad breath or a bad taste.

Causes of gum disease:

Several factors can contribute:

  • Poor oral hygiene:skipping regular brushing or flossing leaves plaque to harden and form calculus/ tartar, leading to gum inflammation.
  • Smoking:The Australian government’s Department of Health has long warned about smoking’s role in gum disease, as it hinders the gum tissue’s ability to repair itself.
  • Hormonal changes in women:Fluctuations during periods, pregnancy, menopause, and even using contraceptives can make gums more sensitive.
  • Medications:Some medicines, as noted by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), can reduce saliva flow, which is crucial for cleaning the mouth and neutralising bacteria.

Gum Health and Systemic Diseases:

The Biological Link:

One might wonder, How exactly does a gum issue impact the rest of our body? The connection lies largely in inflammation and the entry of bacteria into the bloodstream. Inflamed gums act as a gateway for bacteria to enter the bloodstream, which can then travel to various parts of the body, potentially contributing to other health issues.

Gum Health and Heart Disease:

What research says about the connection

The link between gum health and heart disease is quite compelling. Several studies, referenced by the Heart Foundation of Australia, indicate that individuals with periodontal disease have an increased risk of heart disease. It’s not merely a coincidence; the same bacteria found in inflamed gums have been discovered in the arteries of patients with heart disease.

Potential reasons for the link:

Gum inflammation may cause bacteria to enter the bloodstream and cause atherosclerosis. Obstructions can cause heart attacks. The inflammation may also increase the chance of endocarditis, an infection of the heart’s inner lining.

Proactive measures to protect both gum and heart health

Protection is a two-fold approach:

  • Prioritise oral hygiene:regular brushing with fluoride toothpaste, flossing, and getting professional cleanings at least twice a year can keep gum diseases at bay.
  • Lifestyle changes:eating a balanced diet, cutting down on sugar and salt, quitting smoking, and regular exercise—all these recommendations by the Department of Health not only benefit your heart but your gums too.
  1. Gum Health and Diabetes:

How diabetes can exacerbate gum issues

Diabetes, prevalent among many Australians, has a close-knit relationship with gum health. Those with poorly managed blood sugar levels are more susceptible to infections, and that includes gum infections. The gums, in turn, become another battleground where the body fights to maintain equilibrium, often unsuccessfully if diabetes remains uncontrolled.

The two-way street: how gum disease can influence blood sugar control

This relationship isn’t just one-sided. While diabetes can make gum disease worse, the reverse is also true. Severe gum disease can hinder the body’s ability to utilise insulin, making it even tougher to manage blood sugar levels. In this sense, maintaining gum health can actually be a key aspect of diabetes management, something that Diabetes Australia has frequently underscored.

Also Read: What causes bad breath?

Managing and preventing gum issues for diabetics

For those living with diabetes, a bit of extra attention to oral care goes a long way.

  • Monitor blood sugar levels:Regularly checking and maintaining optimal blood sugar levels reduces the risk of gum infections.
  • Regular dental check-ups:With diabetes, routine dental exams are paramount. These should ideally be more frequent than for the average person.
  • Dietary management:A balanced diet low in sugar and high in nutrients, as recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, is essential.
  1. Other health concerns linked to gum health:

Respiratory diseases:

Emerging research indicates that the bacteria causing gum inflammation can be aspirated into the lungs. This can contribute to respiratory conditions such as pneumonia. The Australian Lung Foundation has even emphasised the importance of good oral hygiene in the prevention of respiratory diseases.

Rheumatoid arthritis:

This autoimmune disorder, which affects many Australians, shows striking similarities with gum disease. Both are essentially inflammatory conditions. Studies suggest that individuals with gum disease have a higher likelihood of developing rheumatoid arthritis.

Pregnancy complications:

For expectant mums, gum health is vital. Research in Australia has unveiled a connection between gum disease and complications like preterm birth and low birth weight. Pregnant women are recommended to have regular dental checkups to monitor and maintain gum health.

Prevention and Management:

Daily oral hygiene habits

The cornerstone of healthy gums:

  • Brushing:At least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Don’t forget to replace your toothbrush every three months or when the bristles fray.
  • Flossing:Daily flossing is crucial. It reaches those spots between the teeth and beneath the gumline that a toothbrush can’t.

Regular dental check-ups and cleanings

Yearly visits might not cut it. Depending on your oral health, your dentist might recommend visits every six months or even more frequently.

The role of a balanced diet in gum health

A diet rich in fresh fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and dairy, as advised by the Australian Dietary Guidelines, provides the essential nutrients for optimal gum health.

Quitting smoking and other harmful habits

The Australian government has run numerous campaigns underscoring the risks of smoking for our health. When it comes to your gums, quitting smoking might be one of the best decisions you can make.


From heart disease to diabetes, the health of our gums casts a long shadow over our overall well-being. Ensuring they remain healthy isn’t just about flashing a confident smile; it’s about nurturing our entire body. For those around Kangaroo Point, Qld, seeking expert dental advice or services, “Smile Design Dental” is an excellent option.


Can gum disease be reversed?
Gingivitis, the early stage of gum disease, can be reversed with proper dental care. However, advanced gum diseases like periodontitis require more intensive treatments.

How often should I visit the dentist for a gum health check?
Ideally, every six months. However, those with existing conditions like diabetes or a history of gum disease might need more frequent visits.

Are electric toothbrushes better for gum health?
Electric toothbrushes can be more effective in removing plaque, but what’s more important is the technique used. Whether manual or electric, it’s the consistency and method of brushing that count.

Can children develop gum disease?
Yes, though it’s less common in adults. Proper oral care habits from a young age can prevent its onset.

Remember, the mouth is the gateway to our overall health. Prioritizing gum health is an investment in your holistic well-being.

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